Books0db0a374-c66d-4b4e-8dfd-da270a6b62b6Engraved Landscape Biesje Poort: Many Voices


Mary E. Lange, Liana Müller Jansen, Roger C. Fisher, Keyan G. Tomaselli, David Morris

Published in 2013 by Tormentoso

ISBN: 978-0-620-57982-7

141 pages. 


Engraved Landscape Biesje Poort: Many Voices tells two stories. It provides a valuable record of pre-historicand historic artifacts that would ordinarily be inaccessible to many South Africans. But more significantly it showcases new ways of doing research in a contested and fractured environment. Using a series of historic rock engravings as a springboard, the various contributors to the book- academics, communications experts, historians, architects, local ?Khomani residents- probe questions about the nature of heritage, about our differing cosmologies, and about our links to the land. These are inevitably subject to multiple interpretations and meanings, hence the multi-disciplinary team invited to participate in this important investigation of our heritage. –Melinda Silverman, Department of Architecture, FADA, University of Johannesburg.


Like most brilliant and eye-catching coffee table books, this compilation straddles the tantalisingly academic and the pop(ular) in anthropology… Its scholarly sections are well researched and tightly articulated. They retain this quality without being dry and overly pedagogical, and hence accessible to a lay reader who just wants to glean useful information. I foresee this book, contributing to media anthropology, receiving critical appreciation. Descendants of the ‘First People’ participate as co-authors in the research- informants and people with their experiential and ontological perspectives. As producers of new contemporary realities in postcolonial South Africa, their voices include stories and myths surrounding the engravings, presented here in their own terms. As for the site, the researchers and informants are aware of the need to protect and preserve: the engravings that are the focus of this encounter are fragile. Research paradoxically may itself result in deterioration as people move over the rocks, but, here, awareness results in research actions and methods that try to ensure care and preservation. This is a heritage that requires informed interventions and use so that posterity may continue to enjoy the benefits of a valuable archaeological wealth.- Dr. Nhamo Mhiripiri, Department of Media and Society Studies, Midlands State University.   



Foreword: Setting the Scene: what’s in a landscape?

Keyan G. Tomaselli

Reflections on Biesje Poort 2011

Belinda N. Org

Chapter 1: Past voices on the Biesje Poort rock engravings: “where, what, when and who?”

Mary E. Lange

Chapter 2: Reading the Biesje Poort landscape

Liana Müller Jansen

Chapter 3: Engaging absence of storyline, vagueness and ambiguity: towards an archaeology of rock art at Biesje Poort

David Morris

Chapter 4: The giraffe: engraved meanings

Roger C. Fisher

Chapter 5: Blurring the lines: Rethinking Indigeneity research at Biesje Poort

Lauren Dyll-Myklebust

Chapter 6: Participatory communication: a tool for social and heritage development

Miliswa Magongo

Chapter 7: Biesje Poort as a rock art resource: conservation and tourism

Shanade Barnabas

Chapter 8: An engagement with the land: translating the intangible into the spatial

Tessa Toerien and  Lizet Verwoerd


Go to the book’s official website for more details 

Narrating the Crisis: Hegemony and the South African Press

Narrating the Crisis: Hegemony and the South African

Edited by Keyan Tomaselli, Ruth Tomaselli and Johan Muller

Published: 1987

ISBN: 0-620-10575-5

Narrating the Crisis: Hegemony and the South African Press
is the first book to offer a historical overview of the press in
relation to political economy. The book offers a conceptual framework
for media analysis, followed by case studies dealing with the long
running battle between Nasionale Pers and Perskor, the press and
educational reform, labour reporting and the role of the press on issues
of black housing.

under the above tote by Anthropos Press, Bellville, South Africa.
British edition published by James Currey (London) under the title, The
Press in South Africa. US edition published in hard copy by Lake View
Press, Chicago, under the same title, the Press in South Africa.


1) A Concptual Framework for Media Analysis

Ruth Tomaselli, Keyan Tomaselli and Johan Muller

2) The Construction of News in the South African Press

Keyan Tomaselli, Ruth Tomaselli and Johan Muller

3) The Political Economy of the South African Press

Ruth Tomaselli and Keyan Tomaselli

4) Press Houses at War: A Brief History of Nasionale Pers and Perskor

Johan Muller

5) Cacophony of Consent: The Press in the Struggle for Educational Reform

Johan Muller

6) Ideology on the Beat: Labour and the English-Language Press

Simon Burton

7) On the Social Construction of Urban Problems: The Press and Black Housing, 1925-1979

Jeffery McCarthy and Michelle Friedman

Development and Public Health Communication

Development and Public Health

Edited by Keyan Tomaselli and Colin Chasi


  1. Sham reasoning and pseudo-science: Myths and mediatisation of HIV/AIDS in South Africa (Keyan
  2. Development and health communication for HIV/AIDS prevention (Eliza M Govender)
  3. Aspects of health communication (Ronel Rensburg, Daleen Krige)
  4. Stakeholders and their impact on community development (Musara Lubombo)
  5. Theories of business in society (Neeltje du Plessis)
  6. Why participation? (Colin Chasi)
  7. Tools, techniques and channels for communication (Neeltje du Plessis, Tash Sundar)
  8. South Africa, democratisation and development (Lynette Fourie)
  9. Development and support communication and the AIDS Foundation of South Africa (Eliza M Govender,
    Amy McDonough, Wesley Mathew)
  10. Health communication: The case of TB information leaflets (Daleen Krige)
  11. Poverty and unemployment (Neeltje du Plessis)
  12. Corporate social responsibility (Neeltje du Plessis)
  13. Commercialising the HIV/AIDS crisis: Public service broadcasting, rainbowism, media advocacy
    (Viola C Milton)
  14. The value of entertainment-education: The case of Soul City (Lynette Fourie)

Investigating Communication, Health and Development: 10 Years of Research in

Communication, Health and Development: 10 Years of Research in The
Centre for Communication, media and Society (CCMS)

Edited by: Emma Durden and Eliza GovenderPublisher: Jacana Media (2012)

ISBN 978-1-4314-0730-9

EE Book Cover

book traces some of the key research conducted over a ten-year period
by graduate students of the Centre for Communication, Media and Society
(CCMS) Entertainment Education/ Communication for Participatory
Development course from its inception in 2002, untill 2011.

methodologies and indigenised theories are brought to bear through
these honours, masters and PhD research projects, which reflect the
Freireian derived experientialist pedagogy of CCMS, where students take
responsibility for developing their own research directions within
specific research programmes. There is a strong emphasis in this
collected work on media, social justice, health education and human
rights issues, especially relating to historically disadvantaged

book is a collection of outstanding work from CCMS students, and is a
useful resource for scholars interested in contemporary health,
communication and development research.










The People of St Lucia Area: Point of view on health and development

Oyvind E. Mikalsen and Nangamso Zajiji


A Royal Flush: A case study of discourses surrounding the Urine Diversion toilet and barriers to its

Samantha Waugh, Daniel de Frietas and Rune Miljeigtig


Dissident President? Thabo Mbeki, critical discourse analysis and the struggle to define HIV and
AIDS in South Africa, 1998-2003………………………………………………………….

Kerry Cullinan


Ideology, hegemony and HIV and AIDS: The appropriation of indigenous and global spheres………..32


Warren Parker ?Act Alive?: Youth clubs communicating healthy life choices…………….47

Mkhonzeni Gumede




An evaluation of communication strategies used in the voluntary counseling and testing (VCT)
campaign at the University of Durban-

Tesfagabir Berhe Tesfu


An assessment of students? perceptions of the ABC prevention strategy…………71

Eliza Moodley


An analysis of students? responses to ABC and VCT messages at three universities in KwaZulu-

Abraham Mulwo


?They have ears but they cannot hear?: Listening and talking as HIV prevention: a new approach to
HIV ………………….104

John-Eudes Lengwe Kunda


Investigating students? sexual risk behaviour, risk and protective factors and their responses to
the Scrutinize Campus Campaign at universities in KwaZulu

Given Mutinta




Hands Free: the implementation of a hand-hygiene campaign on the second-floor restrooms of John Bews
Hall at Howard College, UKZN……………………………………………………………142

Matalimo Selebalo


Painting the problem: Body mapping as a participatory Education Entertainment tool in helping youth
learn about conflict
resolution……………………………………………………………. 150

Sertanya Reddy, Aaliyah Dangor and Bhavya Jeena


A Song for Social Change: An ARROW SA intervention at Bechet High School and the communication for
participatory development (CFPD)

Nkululeko Mthiyane


Freireian pedagogy as applied by DramAidE for HIV and AIDS education……………………….171

Dominique Nduhura


A comparative analysis of the efficacy of a once-offforum theatre intervention and weekly ongoing workshops used by DramAidE………184

Hannah Mangenda




Ukhosi FM: Talking about HIV and AIDS in the weekday EE radio drama

Musi Khumalo


An analysis of the partnership between Radio Yfm and

Nisha Ramlutchman and Kamini Moodley




Challenges of collaborative play production on social issues: An Entertainment Education project
report on Ximba Primary School participatory

Linje Manyoza and Lungile Dlamini


Forum theatre for HIV and AIDS awareness: Investigating first-year UKZN students? perceptions of
alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in relation to the transmission of HIV and

Lunga Memela, Zamashandu Mbatha, Peleka Mgugudo and Cindy Nqoko


Investigating the role of participatory theatre in the awareness of HIV and AIDS: A case study of
Durban University of Technology……………………………………………..236

Nothando Khumalo


Staging Empowerment? An investigation into participation and development in HIV and AIDS theatre

Emma Durden




Generations ? bridging the communication gap. The breakdown of communication between parents
and teenagers, and the benefits of soap opera as an EE intervention………………..264

Arthi Maharaj


The Soul Goal: Reception analysis among high-school children of selected episodes of soul

Alison Copley and Mbuso Christian Mkhize


UKZN students? perceptions of traditional healers in the documentary Deadly

Udesha Moodley


Assessing the entertainment and education balance of 4play: Sex Tips for

Thandokuhle Mkhize


Open Sesame! Learning life skills from Takalani Sesame……………….309

Geraldine Coertze




Billboards: An effective medium for EE? Arts for Humanity?s ?Break the Silence? billboard

Bailee-Kate Griggs, Jenna Robinson and Tim Wohltmann


?Let?s get active?: A participatory approach to analyzing and designing billboard

Caitlin Watson, Sarah Strauss, Katherine Wood and Nicolaas Kroone


?Pieces of me?: An investigation into the use of still images in an EE context in overcoming

M.J. Khan and Nasreen Rasool


?Be a man?: A reception analysis of the Brothers for Life campaign

Tamryn Maxwell




A reception analysis of Soul City beyond of South Africa: The case of Choose Life in

Mpolokeng Mpeli


Us and Them: loveLife, commercial brands and everyday life……………………………..372

Richard C. Delate


Big Sister, Big Responsibility? A comparative analysis of HIV and AIDS and sexual health coverage in
Seventeen magazine and loveLife?s
Uncut…………………………………………………………….. 389

Wendy Irene Van de Weg and Phiwokuhle Mabunu


An analysis of media used to diffuse flash-heat treatment as an infant-feeding

Nimeka Dupree





Carla Van Staden, Matt Clark and Simon Morgan


Perceived implication versus received implication: A reception analysis of Indigo Skate Camp?s
website……………… 420

Colin Murphy


The use of social media to advance HIV and AIDS awareness: An investigation into how the
Intersexions Facebook page is used for HIV prevention, care, support and
treatment………………. 429

Mariclair Smit


The use of Entertainment Education in the promotion/ awareness of HIV voluntary Counselling and
testing: An investigation of Intersexions and its Facebook
page……………………………………… 443

Temitope Ogunlela


An exploration of the loveLife generation on the mobile network of

Natasha Sundar





RIGHTS RESERVED. This book contains material protected under
International and Federal Copyright Laws. Any unauthorized reprint or
use of this material is prohibited. No part of this book may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information
storage and retrieval system without express written permission from the
author / publisher.

Media, Democracy and Renewal in Southern Africa

Critical Studies on African Media and Culture:

Media, Democracy and Renewal in Southern Africa

Edited by Keyan Tomaselli and Hopeton Dunn

Media and democracy book

Contents Page


Chapter 1. Reform and Outreach: Rethinking Political Economy of the Southern African
By Keyan Tomaselli and Hopeton Dunn

Part I: Issues of Policy and Legislation

Chapter 2. Is No Policy A Policy Goal? By John M. Barker

Chapter 3. Talk Left, Act Right: What Constitutes Transformation in Southern African Media?
By Jane Duncan

Chapter 4. Media, Scale, and Democratization By Clive Barnett

Chapter 5. Facing the Digital Millennium: Culture, Communication and Globalization in
Jamaica and South Africa
By Hopeton Dunn

Chapter 6. The Role of Civil Society in the Development of Democratic Media in Southern
Africa: The Namibian Example
By Andy Mason

Chapter 7. Mass Media and Democratization of Politics and Society: Lessons From Zimbabwe,
By James Zaffiro

Part II: Access, Empowerment and Democratization

Chapter 8. Transformation, Nation-Building and the South African Media, 1993-1999
By Ruth TeerTomaselli and Keyan G. Tomaselli

Chapter 9. De-Racialization, Democracy and Development: Transformation of the South African
Media, 1994-2000
By Guy Berger

Chapter 10. Magazine Matters: Toward a Cultural Economy of South African (Print)
By Sonja Laden

Chapter 11. Issues of Race and Gender in the Post-Appartheid South African Media
Organizations, 1994-2000
By Farhana Goga

Chapter 12. Who is the ?Community? in
Community Radio: A Case Study of Community Radio Stations in Durban, Kwazulu-Natal
Ruth Teer-Tomaselli

Part III: Indigenizing Theory

Chapter 13. Media Democracy in Botswana: The Kgotla as Myth. Practice and Post-Colonial
Communication Paradigm
By David Kerr

Chapter 14. Media and Democracy in Botswana: The Kgotla and Globalization By Deidre

Chapter 15. Porous Borders and the Changing Geography of Social Relations: Encountering the
By Gibson Mashilo Boloka

Chapter 16. A Local Encountering on a Global
Landscape: A Critique of Gibson Boloka?s Encountering the ?Other?
By Anthea Simoes

Notes on Authors

here to view response on book

Media and Change

Van Zyl, John, and Tomaselli, Keyan G (1977). Media and Change. Johannesburg: McGraw Hill.

Click here for Part 4

Africa, Cultural Studies and Difference

Africa, Cultural Studies and Difference
Edited by Keyan Tomaselli and Handel Kashope Wright
Cultural Studies has evolved and continues
to evolve primarily along regional lines. however uncomfortable this
might be, the genie of British cultural studies cannot be returned to
the bottle of history. Thus, national versions of cultural studies have
arisen in a few African countries. This book engages two critical and
seemingly contradictory tasks: i) to contribute to the development of
cultural studies from the perspectives of African experiences and
indigenous frames of reference; and ii) to examine these in terms of
transnational trajectories of the field in ways that do not reduce them
to one or other context. Much cultural studies remains concerned with
Texts, often disconnected from their contexts. for the authors published
here, The contexts include African philosophies, cosmologies and
ontologies. It includes the writings of both residential natives and
those who have re-located to the diaspora, a spread that opens
conversations with international approaches that include and exclude
African experiences and work. This anthology juxtaposes many different
kinds of cultural studies done in different parts of the world as a
means of creating a global dialogue around the signifier of ‘Africa’.
This book was first published as a special issue of Cultural Studies.
Keyan Tomaselli is Senior
Professor and Director of The Centre for Communication, Media and
Society, University of KwaZulu -Natal, Durban, South Africa. He is
editor of Critical Arts: South- North Cultural and Media Studies and co-editor of the
Journal of African Cinemas.
Handel Kashope Wright is
Professor, Canada Research Chair in Comparative Cultural Studies and
Director of the Centre for Culture, Identity and Education at the
University of British Columbia.
First published 2011
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, Ox14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
ISBN13: 978-0-415-61742-0
1. Introduction: African Cultural Studies
Keyan G. Tomaselli and Handel Kashope Wright
2. Africanicity in Black Cinema: A conjunctural ground for new expressions of
Boulou Ebanda de B?béri
Beyond the tradition/Modernity Dialectic: African nationalist
subjectives in South African print and visual culture of the early
twentieth century
Lize van Robbroeck
4. The New Flâneur: Subaltern cultural studies, African youth in Canada and the
semiology of in-bwtweenness
Awad Ibrahim
5. Outliving Generations: youth traversing borders through popular music in everyday urban
life in East Africa
Fibian Kavulani Lukalo
6. ?Surviving the Future?: Towards a South African cultural studies
Natasha Distiller
7. Facekuerade: The transformational duality in Ebira-Ekuechi festival
Sunday Ododo
8. Europe and African Thought Systems and Philosophies of Education: ?Re-culturing? the
trans-temporal discourses
Ali A. Abdi
9. An African Presence in Europe: Potraits of Somali elders
Glenn Jordan

Towards Affirmative Action: Issues of Race & Gender in SA Media

Towards Affirmative Action: Issues of Race and Gender in South African Media

By Farhana Goga

The Brief:

Consistent with the Windhoek Declaration on Creating an Independent and
Pluralistic African Press, and the UNESCO Work Plan on Communication.
Information and Informatics in the Service of Humanity, this project is
designed to enhance the free flow of information and ideas in South
Africa. The project is particularly directed at a country … where the
democratisation process has been embraced and where disadvantaged
communities have made strides towards self-empowerment through the
media. This takes note of the fact that, for media freedom and diversity
to flourish, all sections of society should have access to both the
production and consumption of media materials. (McClain 1994:1)

Click here to view Goga Book
part 1

Click here to view Goga Book
Part 2

Representing Aboriginality

A post-colonial analysis of the key trends of representing
aboriginality in South African, Australian and Aotearoa/New Zealand film

If films are political artefacts that both reflect and reconstruct a
society’s discourses, then analysis of the cinematic representation of
aboriginality is vital to the post-colonial agenda. Representing
Aboriginality takes a close look at the dominant trends in the
representation of aboriginal people in Australian, South African and
Aotearoa/New Zealand film. Jan Mohamed’s thesis of The Economy of the
Manichean Allegory is employed to interrogate these trends in terms of
Other/Self binaries, where representations of the Other are understood
to be sensitive to tensions within the individual psyches of the
media-makers as well as to social tensions and stresses within the
‘political unconscious’ of the society in which they appear. Three films
are analysed in the discussion of dominant trends: The Great Dance – a
hunter’s story (Directed by Craig and Damon Foster, 2000), The Last Wave
(Directed by Peter Weir, 1977) and Once Were Warriors (Directed by Lee
Tamahori, 1994)

Clelland-Stokes’ forceful analysis of visual representations of
aboriginality will be of interest to scholars and students in the field
of visual anthropology, culture and media studies, film studies, and
anyone interested in the visual culture of aboriginal and indigenous

2007, 216 pgs., DKK 216.00 (approx. ? 19.50/EUR 28.80), ISBN


Click here for details of purchasing the publication

Broadcasting in South Africa

SERIES: Studies in the South African Media

Edited by Ruth Tomaselli, Keyan Tomaselli and John Muller

Broadcasting in South Africa examines the history of the broadcast
media, both radio and television, in enhancing and creating the “general
affairs” and “own affairs” cultures required by the National Party for
their continued dominance. The book examines struggles within the South
African Broadcasting Corporation, the reasons for and content of TV2/3,
the role of soap operas in ideological legitimation and the way in which
broadcasting technology has been shaped for political ends.

Keyan Tomaselli is director of the Contemporary Cultural Studies Unit at
the University of Natal, the editor of Critical Arts, and author of The
Cinema of Apartheid: Race and Class in South African Film.

Ruth Tomaselli, who has served on the board of the South African
Broadcasting Corp., is a lecturer in the Contemporary Cultural Studies
Unit at the University of Natal.

Johan Muller is senior lecturer in Education at the University of Witwatersrand.



Le Cinéma sud-africain est-il tombé sur la tête?

L’étrange cinéma sud-africain à l’époque de l’apartheid.

: Edwin Angless – Robyn Aronstam – David Bensusan –
Jean Copans – Peter Davis – Christo Doherty – Alex Holt –
Frank Meintjies – William Pretorius – Lynette Steenveld –
Keyan Tomaselli – Shawn de Waal – John van Zyl

Dimensions : 240 x 170 x 7 – Poids :
320 grammes
Coéditeur : Afrique Littéraire
ISBN : 2204026336 – SODIS : 8580715 – EAN :

Where Global Contradictions are Sharpest. Research Stories from the Kalahari

Rozenberg (Amsterdam) 2005
ISBN-10: 90 5170 481 X

The `Bushmen’ of the Kalahari could well
be called an iconographic people. Partly as a result of this, over the
years abundant social research has been carried out. Tomaselli and his
research team from the University of Kwazulu-Natal form part of that
tradition: however, in this book Tomaselli is also able to reflect
critically, and not without a touch of irony on the way that the San
have been represented over the years. Hardly has there been a
researcher who so uncompromisingly and aptly illustrates the many
ethical contradictions in doing field work amongst the San, and who at
the same time manages to reconstruct and represent the actual fieldwork
experience and the san people so vividly that you almost taste the dust
of the Kalahari and the raucous world that is depicted.

Contents Page
A Note on Pronunciation

Introduction Starting Off

Chapter 1
Negotiating Research with First Peoples
Keyan G Tomaselli and Arnold Shepperson

Chapter 2
Reverse Cultural Studies in Southern Africa: Field Methods, Power Relations and 4X4s

Chapter 3
“Dit is die Here se Asem”: The Wind, its Messages, and Issues of Autoethnographic Methodology in the

Chapter 4
‘Op die Grond’: Writing in the San/d, Surviving Crime

Chapter 5
Psychospiritual Ecoscience: The Ju/’hoansi and Cultural Tourism

Chapter 6
Textualizing the San `Past’: Dancing With Development San

Chapter 7
Stories to Tell, Stories to Sell: Resisting Textualization

A Note on the Contributors



Available from Rozenberg Publishers, Bloemgracht 82hs
1015 TM Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
For ordering information on this specific title title see:>
Go to “Search”.

Tel: (+) 31(0) 20 625 54 29
Fax: (+) 31(0) 20 620 33 95

United States purchases from:

Rozenberg Publishers
30 Amberwood Parkway
Ashland, OH 44805

Phone numbers: 1-800-Booklog or 1-800-247-6553
or go to and order
directly online

or fax orders to: 419-281-6883

Hawks and Doves

The Pro- and Anti- Conscription Press in South Africa.

Writing in the Sand: Autoethnography among Indigenous Southern Africans

Series: Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry

Edited by Keyan G. Tomaselli, University of KwaZulu-Natal


Introduction: Setting the Scene
Keyan G. Tomaselli

1. Representing Representation
Sonja Laden with Nate Kohn

2. Romancing the Kalahari: Personal Journeys of Methodological Discovery
Belinda Jeursen and Keyan G. Tomaselli

3. Op die Grond: Writing in the San/d, Surviving Crime
Keyan G. Tomaselli

4. A Letter to MyselfMy Trip to Ngwatle
Nasseema Taleb

5. Voices from the Kalahari: Methodology and the Absurd
Mary Lange

6. Meeting Points: Symbiotic Spaces
Mary Lange, Belinda Kruiper, and Charlize Tomaselli

7. Wit Meisie/Morning Star: Encounters in the Desert
Vanessa McLennan-Dodd

8. In the Sun with Silikat
Lauren Dyll

9. Orality, Rhythmography, and Visual Representation
Keyan G. Tomaselli



In the Series:

Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry
Editor(s): Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln

methods are material and interpretive practices. They do not stand
outside politics and cultural criticism. This spirit of critically
imagining and pursuing a more democratic society has been a guiding
feature of qualitative inquiry from the very beginning. The Crossroads
in Qualitative Inquiry series will take up such methodological and moral
issues as the local and the global, text and context, voice, writing
for the other, and the presence of the author in the text. The
Crossroads series understands that the discourses of a critical, moral
methodology are basic to any effort to re-engage the promise of the
social sciences for democracy in the 21st Century. This international
series creates a space for the exploration of new representational forms
and new critical, cultural studies.

Encountering Modernity: Twentieth Century South African Cinemas

A book descrThe image ? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.ibing
the history of South African cinemas can never be
about cinemas only, for the subject will always be intimately
intertwined with its context, in this case 20th century South Africa.

Keyan Tomaselli, one of the founders of cultural studies in SA, explores
in this book how South African cinemas and films have been decidedly
shaped by the country?s history. In turn, films have inspired their
makers and audiences to understand, and come to terms with, the complex
phenomenon of modernity.

Discussing film theory, narratives, audiences and key South African
films and filmmakers, Tomaselli aptly demonstrates that the time has
come to adapt a more ?African? view on African cinemas, since western
theories and models cannot automatically be applied to an African

Far from shying away from the personal, Tomaselli gives a conscientious
and telling account of how his own experiences as a film maker, a
cultural studies scholar, and a South African, have inevitably
influenced his academic viewpoints and analysis.

Prof. Keyan Tomaselli (Culture, Communication and Media Studies
Department, University of KwaZulu-Natal) previously worked in the film
industry and was co-writer of the White Paper on Film. His seminal books
include The Cinema of Apartheid and Appropriating Images (1996). His
interests are political economy, African cinema and visual anthropology.


Rozenberg (Amsterdam), 2006 –
ISBN-10: 90 5170 886 6
ISBN-13: 978 90 5170 886 8

UNISA Press (Pretoria) 2007
ISBN 978186888449-0

Available from Rozenberg Publishers, Bloemgracht 82hs
1015 TM Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
For information on this specific title title see:

Tel: (+) 31(0) 20 625 54 29
Fax: (+) 31(0) 20 620 33 95

South African purchases from:

UNISA Press, P O Box 392, UNISA 0003, South Africa

Tel: (+ 27) 12 429 3081
Fax: (+27) 12 426-3449

United States purchases from:
Rozenberg Publishers
30 Amberwood Parkway
Ashland, OH 44805

Phone numbers: 1-800-Booklog or 1-800-247-6553
or go to and order directly

or fax orders to: 419-281-6883

List of acronyms
Foreword by Ntongela Masilela

Chapter 1
Approaching Modernity: Antecedent South African Cinema Studies
Encountering Africa
Encountering culture
Writing about modernity: Key South African film scholars
Encountering modernity
Encountering (inter-) national film theory
Recent anti-apartheid scholarship

Chapter 2
Contradictory Subjectivity: Engaging Modernity, Movies, Apartheid and Post-modernism
A view from afar
From geography to student filmmaker
Early influences: Expanded cinema
Teaching: Geography and film
Into postmodernism
Visual anthropology: Another lens
Having fun while Rome burns: Is there a text in this context?

Chapter 3
Grappling with the New South Africa: Towards a New Cinematic Repertoire
Strategic aesthetics in Second Cinema 1: My Country, My Hat
Other politicised Second Cinemas
Other personalised Second Cinemas
Strategic distribution in Second Cinema 2: Place of Weeping
Anti-apartheid cinema: Consolidation
‘Retrospective’ films – e’Lollipop, Drum and Freedom Square
Towards a post-apartheid cinema
Negotiating the transition

Chapter 4
Sign Wars: Theories of Cinema and Social Struggle
South African semiotic struggles
Third Cinema: Critique of psychoanalysis
Modernity and national cinema
African subjectivities

Chapter 5
(With Arnold Shepperson and Maureen Eke)
Orality in African Cinema: Reasoning, Representation and Relativism
Ontology / ready-to-handedness
Psychoanalysis and knowledge of Africa
Indigenising theory
Third Cinema: The rest, not the West
New visual grammars
Dreams as part of life
In summary
Secondary orality in South African film
In conclusion

Chapter 6
‘Blackness’: Theoretical Perspectives on Cinema in Africa
The ‘idea’ of Africa
Semiotics of race
How meanings are shifted
Race war: The American articulation
Race and class: South African articulations
From black consciousness to non-racialism
Historical accuracy in film
Writing about modernity
Political intertexts – ‘Biko: Breaking the Silence’
Non-racial ethics
Authorship and identity: ‘Movies are just movies’
What definition of African film?

Chapter 7
Imaging Africa: Gorillas, Actors and Characters
Romancing Africa
South Africa: Protecting its own
Afrikaner concerns
Intercultural mediations
International African actors and voices
Emergent anti-apartheid cinema
Signposts towards post-apartheid cinema
Infrastructural developments
Yesterday / tomorrow

Chapter 8
Popular Memory and Historical Films: Capital and Culture
South African film production 1896 1915
Development in the film production industry l916 1922
De Voortrekkers /Winning a Continent: Assumptions of ideological and cultural cohesion
‘Symbol of Sacrifice’: Images of hegemonic consent
Aftermath of World War I
‘They Built a Nation’: Language politics
The voortrekkers in other films
The end of the beginning

Chapter 9
Evil Englishmen, Pure Afrikaners and Gender Politics
Representations of cultural space
Reconstructing the ‘national’ past
The Eden film: The never-never land of pastoral harmony
The insider/outsider conflict: The traumatic love affair with capital
Genesis of the uitlander
The uitlander: The shifting enemy of Afrikanerdom
The Boeredogter
Volksmoeder / Provider-nurturer and Mother of the Nation
The dominee: Tension management
Development and ideological reorientation of the boeredogter
Capital’s ultimate defilement of Afrikaner cultural space
Class fractions: The embarrassment of culture
The war (jeep opera) film
‘April ’80’: The case of the reclaimed boeredogter


Books on Indigenous Video/Cinema

The Politics of Broadcasting in Zimbabwe

Author: Zaffiro, James
Date: 1998
Anthropos and Intervention Press
Contents not available

Appropriating Images: The Semiotics of Visual Representation

Author: Tomaselli, Keyan
Date: 1996

Århus, Denmark: Intervention Press 1996
332 pp
ISBN 87-89825-05-5
Europe and Commonwealth: Intervention Press (ECU 23.75)
USA: Smyrna Press ($29.00)
South Africa: CCMS (R180.00)

The image “” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
Prof David Turton
, Granada Centre for Visual Anthropology says of the book:

IMAGES is a notable achievement for two main reasons.
Firstly, by using a single interpretive paradigm – derived from
semiotics – to discuss a wide variety of documentary
films – Keyan Tomaselli has been able to give an
integrated and coherent account of some of the issues which have most
bedeviled the discussion of film by visual
anthropologists, such as the relationship between the written
and filmed ethnography, objectivity and reflectivity and the
unequal power relation between film makers and

APPROPRIATING IMAGES is informed throughout by an
explicit concern with the political context within which anthropologists
and ethnographic film-makers do their work. This is
where Tomaselli’s long personal engagement against
apartheid has been a huge advantage to him: it enables him to ask the
kind of questions – awkward and deeply disconcerting –
which can be all too easily brushed aside by
film-makers and academics who have not had to face up to the same
choices and dilemmas in their professional and
everyday lives. The result is a book which will not only serve
as a lively and provocative introduction for students but which
also goes far beyond the dispensing of anecdotal
wisdom, the excessive preoccupation with production strategies and
the self-absorbed recounting of personal histories …

David Turton
Granada Centre for Visual Anthropology
University of Manchester
(From the flyleaf)


Foreword – Dick Chalfen, Centre for Visual Anthropology, Temple

Preface : An autobiographical note

The Visual Story – a world apart?

A Brief History of Ethnographic Film Making: the pioneers
Looking at Africa: the dark ‘Other’
Looking at the Rest of the World
Visual Anthropology: explaining ethnographic film in print
Film Theory: an anthropological orphan
Visual Sociology: the homeless orphan
Semiotics: a new synthesising lens

Chapter 1
What is Semiotics? Defusing the minefield of terms

Making sense: back to basics
Elements of Semiotics
Reality: the struggle for the sign
Documentary as a Code

Chapter 2
Realism, Myth and Reception

Form, Coding and Style
How Real is Realism?
Phaneroscopy: ‘the wide angle lens’
Slots, Phaneroscopy and Thick Description
The Concept of Myth
Myth and Media
Social Propaganda, Political Propaganda
Reception: propaganda vs information
Political Intertexts
Ritual: rearticulating ontologies
Phanerons, Monsters and Sudden Death

Chapter 3
The ‘Other’ in Film: Tribes and Tribalism

Academic Myths and Racism
Visual Imperialism
Social Science as Myth
The Myths of ‘Tribe’ and ‘Tribalism’: misunderstanding African societies
Adventures into the past
Tribal Connotations: violence, savagery
‘Tribe’ as Tourist-speak

Chapter 4
Power, Exploitation and Anthropological Responsibility

The Ethical Conundrum
Showcasing Anthropology
Exploiting ‘Primitives’ and ‘Ex-Primitives’: copyright, ownership, audiences
Political Responsibility
Reassessment of Visual Anthropology

Chapter 5
Signposting Semiotics in Studying the Other

The Significant Agenda: the grounding of the sciences of signs
The Wood and the Trees: semiology
The Wood, the Trees and the Timber: semiotics
Outline and Division of Interpretants: ‘the cultural connection’
Interpretants: how we make sense of signs
Producing Africa: the context of semiotics
Recovering Contexts
Combining Lexicons

Chapter 6
Trends in Visual Anthropology

Documentary, Ethnography and ‘the Impression of Reality’
How Real is Realism?
Distinguishing Between Ethnographic Film and Documentary
Technology: encoding and reception
Encoding Reality
Institutional Considerations
Anthropological Knowledge and Documentary Film
The Pluralist View

  • Diaries/Notebooks/Descriptive
  • Observational/Descriptive
  • Cinema Verite
  • Participatory/Shared Anthropology
  • Didactic
  • Processual
  • Character narration
  • Conceptual/narration
  • Testimonial
  • Seasonal Cycles
  • Film Maker as Griot
  • Subject-generated or Indigenous Media
  • Sociotherapy
  • Documentation Modality
  • Explanatory Mode
  • Explanation Rejected
  • Context Enrichment
  • Experience/Theoretical Understandings

The Exclusivist View
What Constitutes a Community?
Ethnographic Film and Surreality
The Scientific Unthinkable

Chapter 7
Filmic Ethnography Versus the Pluralist View

Integration off Form, Process and Content in Ethnographic Film
Ethnographic Film and Production Principles

  • Holism
  • Patience
  • Cine Trance
  • The Ethnographic Presence
  • The Ethnographic Present

Film Technique and Interpretations of Truth
Participant Observation, Pertinent Distance, Space and Interaction
Reflexivity: admitting assumptions
Return to Basics I: re-examining reflexivity
Return to Basics II: re-examining ethnographic events
Editing as Imposition
Films of Cultures
The ‘Us’ ‘Them’ Dichotomy: Where to We draw the line around Them?
Definitions of Semiotics of Visual Anthropology and Ethnographic Film

Chapter 8
Case Studies

Conventional Documentary
Maids and Madams – Servants of Apartheid (With Ruth Teer-Tomaselli)

Appropriating Ethnographic Film Techniques
Classified People – Legislating Race (With Maureen Eke)

Comparative Description
Girls Apart – Encoding Difference

Chapter 9
Towards Ethical Film Making and Crew-Subject Interactions

Engagement With Subject-Communities: Relocating the Scholar
How to ensure Accountability of Crews/Facilitators of Subject-Communities?



The Cinema of Apartheid: Race and Class in South African Film

The Cinema of Apartheid: Race and Class in South African Film

Author: Tomaselli, Keyan
Date: 1988

300 pp
ISBN 0-918266-19-X (paper), ISBN 0-941702-18-9 (hard)
Europe and Commonwealth: Routledge, London
USA: Lake View and Smyrna Presses $11.95 paper; $29.95

“Tomaselli’s bold, well researched expose of the history of an
art form struggling in chains under apartheid [is] a fascinating and
invaluable book for anyone interested in film, anywhere.” (Nadine

How a nation looks at itself and shows itself to others is often
revealed in its movies. But alongside this more flattering self-image,
its movies may also reveal realities which it would rather conceal. This
ambiguity is particularly true of South African films, which reflect
the daily life and values of a society governed by extreme theories of
racial separation.

In The Cinema of Apartheid, Keyan Tomaselli analyzes the historical
development and present state of South African cinema. Assuming no
special knowledge on the part of the reader, the author provides
fascinating descriptions of the movies, with penetrating comments on how
they reflect South African realities.

Tomaselli addresses all aspects of the film industry. While focusing
on domestic productions, Tomaselli also discusses the many international
filmmakers who use South Africa as a location. He begins with an
account of how the government uses subsidies and censorship to determine
which films are made. He explores the tensions between English-language
and Afrikaans-language films, and between films made for whites and
films made for blacks. Considerable attention is given to the media and
the distribution system which shape the nature of film discourse in
South Africa.

Tomaselli takes his readers behind the scenes to examine the industry
in is financial infrastructure, its marketing strategies and its work
habits. He concludes with an appraisal of the independent cinema created
on the margins of society and the obstacles facing South Africans who
wish to create films with artistic and political integrity. He shows how
social polarization has produced a great gap between what is and what
might be, but holds out some hope for progress.

The documentary section of The Cinema of Apartheid is the most
comprehensive research on South African film ever to appear in print. A
filmography lists all feature films made in South Africa between 1910
and 1985, together with numerous documentaries about South Africa,
including films by exiles and non-South Africans. The bibliography cites
outstanding writing from three continents.

Tomaselli’s approach, combining historical, political and aesthetic
analysis, offers a unique view of a country in turmoil. The Cinema of
Apartheid may prove to be not only the definitive book on South African
cinema, but also a model study of an entertainment industry.


Intervention Press, Castenschioldsvej 7, Højbjerg, Denmark.
Fax: (+ 45) 86 275-133. Tel: (+ 45) 86 272-333.
DKK 104.50 / 10.50 STERLING / ECU 14.00
Orders supplied by Intervention will be levied DKK30.00 / 3 pounds
sterling / ECU 4.00 to cover postage and packaging. If more than three
titles are prdered P and P will be free. Residents of EEC should add
25% VAT unless VAT registered in their country of residence.

Lake View Press, P O Box 578299, Chicago, IL 60057, USA.
Phone/fax: 312-935-2694.


Smyrna Press
P O Box 021803-GPO,
NY 11202,
Fax: 201-864-6434
$11.95 paper; $29.95

Myth, Race and Power: South Africans Imaged on Film and TV

Author: Tomaselli, Keyan
Date: 1986

Other Authors: Alan Williams, Lynette Steenveld and Ruth Tomaselli
126 pp
ISBN 0-620-09003-0
USA: Smyrna Press (via Cineaste): $15
South Africa: Anthropos R15.50
Examines films, videos and TV series made by local and overseas producers.

1986. 128 pp. Photos. Index. Johannesburg: Anthropos Publishers. Critical Studies in African
Anthropology No. 1

This book
examines films, videos and TV series made by South African and foreign
producers. Amongst the titles discussed are Laurens van der Post’s
TESTAMENT TO THE BUSHMEN, various films made by John Marshall and others
on the !Kung, the SA Broadcasting Corporation’s THEY CAME FROM THE EAST
and the British-made WHITE TRIBE OF AFRICA.

The authors have
dawn from their extensive film production experience to develop a set of
principles of ethnographic production.

The authors
discuss the very thin line between propaganda and documentary, and show
how ethnographic films become propaganda in particular viewing contexts.
Apartheid propaganda films examined include TO ACT A LIE, A PLACE

Lesotho Video Herders Project: Explorations in Visual Anthropology

Author: Scott, Chuck
Date: 1994

128 pp
ISBN 87-89825-04-7
Århus: Intervention Press in association with the Gaduate Programme in Culturaland Media Studies,
University of Natal.
South Africa: Anthropos R70
USA and Canada: Smyrna Press $16.60

This case study describes a process undertaken by a group
of researchers and video-makers working with herders in the
remote regions of North-easten Lesotho. it examines the
debates raised by visual anthropology and ethnographic filmmaking
and the method and practice of ‘community video’ theory. The book
gives a first-hand account of – and reflection on – the
fieldwork undertaken. It explores the relations between
researchers and the subject community, the production practices and the
development of a finished project.


  • Lesotho Video Herders Project
  • Intention
  • Producers
  • Process
  • Once More into the Mountains
  • Project Overview
  • Towards a Theoretical Understanding
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendices:
    Map; Mashaile Kapa’s Life Story; Group Discussion;
    Motebong (At the Cattle Post) First Draft’ Motebong (At
    the Cattle Post) Structure of First Draft; Motebong (At the Cattle
    Post) Theme and Rhythm of the First Draft Structure; Second

USA and Canada: Smyrna

Europe and Commonwealth: Intervention

South Africa: Anthropos

Public Service Broadcasting: Policy Directions Towards 2000

Public Service Broadcasting: Policy Directions Towards 2000.

Edited by Alum Mpofu, Susan Manhando and Keyan Tomaselli (1996)
298 pp
ISBN 0-620-19687-4

South Africa: CCMS and Anthropos

Europe: Intervention Press, Denmark

consultative report on a two year project commissioned by the Film and
Allied Workers Organisation, and the Film and TV Federation. The new
technologies component was funded by the SA Broadcasting Corporation.


  • The Role of the Public Broadcasters in a Future South Africa
  • Drama programming and the Public Broadcaster
  • Advertising and Public Service Broadcasting
  • Women Broadcasters and Affirmative Action at the SA Broadcasting Corp.
  • Public TV Programming for Children
  • The Impact of Developing Technologies on PSB
  • News and Public Service Broadcasting
  • Policy Considerations for religious Broadcasting
  • Sport and Public Service Broadcasting
  • Education Broadcasting and the Public Broadcaster

The Press in South Africa

The Press in South Africa

(Alternative title: Narrating The Crisis: Hegemony and the South
African Press)
Edited by Keyan Tomaselli, Ruth Tomaselli and Johan Muller (1987)
258 pp
ISBN 0-620-10575-5
USA: Lake View Press. (Hard $29.95; Paper $12.95)
Rest of the World: James Currey. (£11.95 sterling)

The first book to offer an historical overview of the press in
relation to political economy. The book offers a conceptual framework
for media analysis, followed by case studies dealing with the long
running battle between Nasionale Pers and Perskor, the press and
educational reform, labour reporting and the role of the press on issues
of black housing.

Keyan Tomaselli is director of the Contemporary Cultural Studies Unit
at the University of Natal, the editor of Critical Arts, and author of
The Cinema of Apartheid: Race and Class in South African Film.

Ruth Tomaselli, who has served on the board of the South African
Broadcasting Corp., is a lecturer in the Contemporary Cultural Studies
Unit at the University of Natal.

Johan Muller is senior lecturer in Education at the University of Witwatersrand.


Book review by Michael Chapman

Narrating the Crisis: Hegemony and the South African Press is the first of a series of three
books, compositely entitled Addressing the Nation.
The aim is to examine the history of the commercial press, broadcasting
and the ‘alternative’ press in South Africa. The present study, edited
by and written largely by Keyan Tomaselli, Ruth Tomaselli and Johan
Muller, concentrates on the mainstream commercial press, and contains a
general theoretical overview of the methodology to be adopted, a chapter
which traces the political and economic context of the South African
media, and several ‘case studies’ which investigate the struggle for
political dominance between the two Afrikaans publishing groups Perskor
and Nasionale Pers, the reporting of educational matters by the
Afrikaans press, and the responses in English-language newspapers to
labour issues and to the ‘problem’ of black housing.

With buzz-words like ideology and hegemony immediately confronting
the reader, the approach and conclusion might seem predictable: the
mainstream press in South Africa, whether English or Afrikaans, was
ultimately the lackey of racial capitalism, its selection of news
dictated by what was not harmful to the prevailing system of power and
privilege. In consequence the ‘freedom of the press’ is a myth, as
anyone possessing the superior insights of Althusserian Marxism knows,
and instead we have news as an ideological discourse mediated by
journalists who, as members of the petty bourgeoisie, consciously or
unconsciously participate in hegemonic processes. That this is the
consensus of the various contributors does not, however, make Narrating
the Crisis itself simply an overdetermined product of the plot of

In their opening section the editors suggest a theoretical grid which
will take into account not only Althusser’s somewhat idealised view of
the functioning of state apparatuses (whether political parties or
newspapers), but also Raymond Williams’s notion of ‘experience’ as a
mediating activity through which social process is ‘lived’ by different
people, and E.P. Thompson’s concept of values (activities which vary
according to class and therefore compete in any socio-economic arena).

We are reminded that ideology and culture are the products of human
endeavor and not just passive reproductions of the state and its
institutional life, and the essays in the book succeed on the whole in
conveying the complex character of press interests and practices in our
social formation. If hegemony, as Gramsci puts it, is the unstable
equilibrium that a ruling class achieves at a particular moment, the
authors do not try here to erase or avoid the often conflicting demands
of race, capital, Afrikaner sectionalism, Botha’s “Total Strategy” and
journalistic liberal tradition which together constitute something of
the operating field of the commercial press in this country.

Chapter 1, ‘A Conceptual Framework…’, clarifies difficult
theoretical issues, while Chapter 2 explores the parameters of ‘freedom’
and ‘constraint’ in the construction of news. In relating reportage to
larger contexts the mainstream press, we are told, highlights ‘events’
at the expense of situational analyses, so that as ‘resettlements’ of
black communities became more frequent, for example, we have a
‘condition’ which is no longer newsworthy. Such procedures of
selectivity, emphasis and ‘gatekeeping’ have of course a powerful effect
on the shaping of the South African ‘reality’. Johan Muller writes with
subtle understanding of the Afrikaans press, but I tended to get a
little lost in Simon Burton’s chapter on ‘Labour and the
English-language Press’. The problem (that the commercial press reports
on dramatic disputes while largely ignoring the ongoing processes of
labour development and contestation) should be fairly self-evident given
the nature of the commercial press and its readership, and the argument
could have been shortened to effect. Perhaps a perspective of debate on
Burton’s chapter can only be supplied by a comparative study of
mainstream and ‘alternative’ approaches. How do New Nation and The Star
respond, respectively, to similar labour-related concerns? Is the Weekly
Mail, which has a largely white ‘bourgeois-intellectual’ readership, a
labour-event or a labour-process newspaper?

As my own field is South African literature, I noted with interest
that Jeffrey McCarthy and Michelle Friedman preface their chapter on
black housing with lines from Lionel Abrahams’s poem Soweto Funeral, and
comment that ‘social scientists may have been a little less perceptive
than the poets in their interpretation of the existential role of the
dilapidated built environment assigned to blacks…’. The point is that
poets have usually tried to touch the ‘lived experience’ in all its
local contours. McCarthy and Friedman attempt to subject the urban
geographer’s understanding to the political and commercial prerogatives
of the press and address questions such as: Why did the media ‘discover’
black housing during certain periods?; against what background was the
‘discovery’ of black housing made by different sectors of the media and
in what context was it discussed once it emerged as an issue? But the
argument, while rigorous, seems ill at ease with the contours of our own
experiential geographies, and the authors admit in their postscript
that their article, which was written some years previously, relied
perhaps too exclusively upon European Marxist concepts to interrogate
specifically South African urban problems.

The reminder is a useful one. A great deal of current cultural
analysis uses concepts such as ideology and hegemony in overly
Europeanised ways. Generally, however, Narrating the Crisis avoids the
diagrams of any new Eurocentricism and firmly rubs theory against local
circumstances. For this alone, the book should prove valuable not only
to students of cultural studies, but to a wider readership concerned to
understand the signifying procedures of this society. Finally, I would
suggest that free copies be sent to the editors of our mainstream press.
Perhaps they would then begin to realise, more self consciously, why
their state of emergency their editorials, based on good liberal
principles, sounded so hollow in a vacuum of sociopolitical
investigation. If detentions had become a ‘condition’ and therefore no
longer particularly newsworthy, thank goodness for ‘events’ such as
Fergie’s pregnancy or heart throb Barnard’s most recent wedding!


USA: Lake View Press.
Hard $29.95 Paper $12.95
Rest of the world: James
. £11.95 sterling

Currents of Power: State Broadcasting in South Africa

Currents of PowerEdited by Ruth
Tomaselli, Keyan Tomaselli and Johan Muller
277 pp
ISBN 0-620-11189-5 (paper), ISBN 0-941702-24-3 (hard)
USA: Lake View Press ($14.95 paper; $29.95 hard)
South Africa: CCMS and Anthropos (R33.95)
Rest of the World: James Currey, Oxford (£11.95 sterling)

the history of radio and TV between 1920s and 1984,. Chapters cover
ideology and technology, apartheid programming, SABC editorial policy,
‘black’ TV and radio, and South African radio and TV soap operas.

The Alternative Press in South Africa

The Alternative Press in South Africa

Edited by Keyan Tomaselli and P Eric Louw
236 pp
ISBN: 0-620-11190-9 (paper), ISBN 0-941702-30-8 (hard)
USA: Lake View Press $14.95 paper; $35 cloth
South Africa: CCMS and Anthropos R43
Rest of the World: James Currey £11.95

The Alternative Press in South Africa focuses on the history of
“black” newspapers from the missionary press, linking the struggles of
this press and its editors to contemporary publishing ventures by
oppressed communities, trade unions and the student presses. It also
offers an historical overview of the black Media Workers Association and
its role in questioning conventional newsgathering and reporting.

Keyan Tomaselli is director of the Contemporary Cultural Studies Unit
at the University of Natal, the editor of Critical Arts, and author of
The Cinema of Apartheid: Race and Class in South African Film.

P. Eric Louw is also a lecturer in the Centre.


South African Media Policy: Debates of the 1990s

Edited by P Eric Louw
380 pp
ISBN 0-620-176-555 (paper)
USA and Canada: Lake View Press ($19.95)
South Africa: CCMS and Anthropos (R50)
Europe and British Commonwealth: Intervention Press (ECU21)

The image ? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The future of the media in post-apartheid South Africa is debated by
leading scholars and activists, including people who played key roles in
formulating media policy during the 1990s, ranging from members of the
Communist Party to Broederbunders. Featuring original and hard-to-obtain

Eric Louw is a senior lecturer in the Centre for Cultural and Media
Studies, University of Natal, Durban. He has been centrally involved in
South Africa’s media policy debate. Many of his papers (reproduced in
this book) have influenced the ANC’s media policy. He has published
widely on the South African media.



  1. Introduction – PE Louw
  2. Report on the Task Group in Broadcasting. A Personal Perspective – Christo Viljoen and P Cronje
  3. The People Shall Broadcast! The Battle for the Airwaves – Willie Currie
  4. Community Radio: people’s Voice or Activist Dream? – K Rama and PE Louw
  5. Reforming South African Broadcasting – Richard Collins
  6. Restructuring the Media: Can Socialist and Libertarian Principles be Combined? – PE Louw
  7. Truth, Tolerance, Fairness and Freedom are the values we should be striving for – Harvey Tyson
  8. The Media are too important to be left to Professionals? – Essop Pahad
  9. The Position, Structure, Control and Financing of the SABC must also be placed under the
    magnifying glass – Louis Raubenheimer
  10. Roundup of the Rhodes Media Policy Workshop – Don Pinnock
  11. A Pox of your Taxes! A Critique of Louw’s Media Subsidy System – Reg Lascaris
  12. Building a Media System: A Reply to Lascaris – PE Louw
  13. The Growth of Monopoly Control of the South African Press – PE Louw
  14. Monopoly Schmonopoly! South Africa’s Press is not a Monopoly – Peter Sullivan
  15. Monopoly, Oligopoly or Imperfect Competition: a reply to peter Sullivan – PE Louw
  16. Critique of the Democratic Party’s Principles on Telecommunications and Broadcasting – Keyan
  17. The National Party and the Media: A Special kind of Symbiosis – Arrie de Beer and Elanie Steyn
  18. Militancy and Pragmatism: the genesis of the ANC’s Media Policy – Ruth Teer-Tomaselli
  19. Media, Media Education and the Development ogf South Africa – PE Louw
  20. Quo Vadis? Issues Awaiting Future Consideration


  1. The Report of the Task Group on Broadcasting in South and Southern Africa: A Summary
  2. Joint Submission to Codesa from Organisations which Form Part of the Independent Broadcasting
    and Film Industry
  3. Jabulani Freedom of the Airways Conference
  4. Free, Fair and Open: South African Media in the Transition to Democracy
  5. African National Conference: Resolutions Adopted at ANC DIP National Media Seminar
  6. National Party Position Paper on the Regulation of the Electronic Media
  7. Democratic Party Proposals to Codesa
  8. Pan African Congress of Azania (PAC) Statement on Media Policy
  9. National Association of Broadcaster’s Comments on the Government’s Proposal for a Commission on
  10. The Liberation of the Media: A Speech made by National Party Minister Roelf Meyer
  11. South African Union of Journalists’ Media Policy for Democratic South Africa
  12. Democratic Party Proposals Regarding Principles for Telecommunications and Broadcasting in the
    New South Africa
  13. Campaign for Independent Broadcasting Declaration
  14. Notes on Authors

Rethinking Culture

Edited by Keyan Tomaselli
152 pp, large format
ISBN 0-620-11500-9
Europe and Commonwealth: Intervention Press ECU12.00
South Africa: CCMS and Anthropos R25
USA: Lake View Press

RETHINKING CULTURE is an excellent example of how British
Contemporary Cultural Studies travelled to South Africa, was
reconstituted in terms that different context, and applied in popular
struggles against apartheid.

The book will be of interest to anyone searching for more information
about the situation in South Africa during the 1980s, especially with
regard to cultural issues rarely addressed by the media in Europe.
Richard Johnson, previously of the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary
Cultural Studies, has commented that the chapter, Lineage of
Contemporary Cultural Studies, is one of the most lucid commentaries
available on the work of his Centre.

David Rowe of Newcastle College, Australia, comments that the book
“contains a wealth of ideas and information from cultural analysis and
political conditions … These include labour and culture, education and
culture, the framing of news in the mass media. Each topic reveals
clear parallels with the operation of the mass media in other capitalist
countries, also highlighting features unique to South Africa” (AFRICAN

David Kerr, University of Botswana, states: “By turning their backs
on an elitist, reified view of culture as the accumulation of values and
art objects, by broadening the scope of discussion to include the
popular as well as elitist cultures, by emphasizing the connections
between culture, ideology, history, class-formation and the material
production of knowledge, the contributors have opened up fertile new
opportunities for interdisciplinary analysis” (SOUTHERN AFRICAN REVIEW

Contributors include: Keyan Tomaselli, Johan Muller, Ian Steadman,
Ruth Teer-Tomaselli, David Bascin, Julie Frederikse, Muff Anderson and
Ntongela Masilela.



USA AND CANADA Lake View Press, P O Box 578299, Chicago, IL 60057, USA.
Phone/fax: 312-935-2694.

EUROPE Intervention Press, Castenschioldsvej 7, Højbjerg, Denmark.
Fax: + 45-86-275-133. Tel: + 45-8627-2333.

SOUTH AFRICA Anthropos Publishers, P O Box 4258, Cresta 2118, South Africa.
Fax: (+ 27) 11-333-2028. Tel: (+ 27) 11 337-3120 (Ask for Frans Boot).

Le Cinema Sud-Africain est-il Tombe Sure la Tete?

Edited by Keyan G Tomaselli and Guy Hennebelle (1986)
128 pp. Colour and B/W photographs. CinemeAction No 39, Paris
A co-publication with Afrique Litteraire


  • Prologue: L’Afrique du Sud n’est pas ce que vous croyez! – Jean Copans
  • Preamble: Ettre Noir en Afrique du Sud – Frank Meintjies
  • CHAPITIRE I Panorama Historique L’evolution du cinema sud-africain – Keyan G Tomaselli
  • Le role de la Jamie Uys Film Company dans la culture afrikaner – Keyan G Tomaselli
  • CHAPITARE II Du Cinema En Black and White … Les cinemas “noirs” de l’Afrique du Sud – Keyan G
  • MY COUNTRY MY HAT; ne pas interesser seulment les convainces des mefaits de l’apartheid – David
  • “Les dieus sont tombes sur la tete”, de Jamie Uys: delices et ambiguites de la position du
    missionaire – Peter Davis
  • La television, la comedie et le film – William Pretorius
  • CHAPITRE III Le Cinema, La Politique et l’Apartheid Les documentaires de propagande – Lynette
  • La censure: de rigueur a la subtitle – Keyan G Tomaselli
  • Le cinema et la video d’opposition – Keyan G Tomaselli
  • Une experience: le Centre du Cinema Direct – John van Zyl, Robyn Aronstam et Shawn de Waal
  • Le cinema anti-apartheid a l’exterieur – Keyan G Tomaselli
  • Un cineaste noir en exil: Lionel Ngakane – Gary Crowdus
    Dictionaire de trente cineastes sud-africaines – Alex Holt, Christo Doherty et Keyan
    Quelques films sud-africains caracterisques – Keyan Tomaselli
    Les films sud-africains de fiction depuis 1910
    Quelques films anti-apartheid a Paris – Edwin Angless

AVAILABLE FROM CineAction, 106, Bd St Denis, 92400 Courbevoie, France.
Tel: (1) 43-33-7034

Contact for purchases:
Centre for Cultural and Media Studies,
University of Natal,
Durban 4041,
South Africa.
Fax: +27 (31) 260-1519.

Voices and Visions: Audio-Visual Media in the New South Africa

Edited by Signe Byrge Sørensen and Karen Thorne (1996)
ZEBRA Information Office (Copenhagen) in association with Open Window Network (Johannesburg)
65 pp, A4 format, photos 

Voices and Visions



  • Introduction – Karen Thorne
  • Shaping Policy: Towards a Democratisation of Information and Communication – Tshepo Rantho
  • From Broadcasting to ‘Bitcasting’: Community Broadcasting and New Technologies – Cassim Shariff
  • Democracy and the Media: From Policy to Practice in Public and Community Broadcasting – Dimitri
  • Reconceptualising Public Service Broadcasting Within the South African Broadcast Environment –
    Ruth Teer-Tomaselli
  • The Role of Community Television in Development and Nation Building in South Africa – Chuck
  • Participatory Communication: A Theoretical Exploration – Kubeshni Govender
  • Greater Durban Television – Mike Aldridge
  • The State of Film Distribution in the New South Africa – Richard Ismael
  • Training for the Audio-Visual Sector in South Africa – Nicky Newman
  • So, Where is the Money Going to Come From? – Karen Thorne

European distributor: ZEBRA,
Elmgade 5, 1 DK-2200 København N,
Fax: (+ 45) 3536-0215


Ordering a copy from Zebra

The price for one copy of the publication is 20 US $, which equals 120 Danish kroner (DKK) (includes
postal charges).

you choose to pay in US$ please include 8 US$ for bank charges. please
pay by bank transfer (SWIFT) to DABA-DKKK,3344-075484, ZEBRA, Den Danske
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You can also pay by national cheque. Within Europe you can use ZEBRA’s postal account: 877-5222

make sure to write your full name and address on the cheque or the bank
transfer you make out to ZEBRA. We will send you your copy of VOICES
AND VISIONS as soon as we receive your order and payment.

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